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We are committed to the ethical principles for the protection of human subjects in research. Information about the ethical codes that serve as the foundation for the conduct of research with human participants may be found here:
Modern human subjects protections begin with the Nuremberg Code. The Code (1949) was developed following the Nuremberg Military Tribunal as a standard by which to judge human experimentation conducted by the Nazis. It addresses many of the basic principles governing the ethical conduct of human subjects research, including the voluntary consent of human subjects.
The World Medical Association adopted the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) as guidance for medical doctors undertaking biomedical research involving human subjects. The Declaration has been continuously revised (most recently in 2008). It addresses important issues including the principle of risk to benefit ratio in research, human studies based on laboratory and animal studies, review of research by independent committees and informed consent.
The U.S. Congress commissioned the Belmont Report (1979) in response to public outrage over the Tuskegee syphilis study conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service. The report addresses the three ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice.
Professional Ethics Codes
In addition to complying with the federal regulations governing human subjects, researchers should also follow codes of ethics and regulations within their profession and area of research: