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Ethical Principles

We are committed to the ethical principles for the protection of human subjects in research. Information about the ethical codes that serve as the foundation for the conduct of research with human participants may be found here:

Nuremberg Code

Modern human subjects protections begin with the Nuremberg Code. The Code (1949) was developed following the Nuremberg Military Tribunal as a standard by which to judge human experimentation conducted by the Nazis. It addresses many of the basic principles governing the ethical conduct of human subjects research, including the voluntary consent of human subjects.

Declaration of Helsinki

The World Medical Association adopted the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) as guidance for medical doctors undertaking biomedical research involving human subjects. The Declaration has been continuously revised (most recently in 2008). It addresses important issues including the principle of risk to benefit ratio in research, human studies based on laboratory and animal studies, review of research by independent committees and informed consent.

Belmont Report

The U.S. Congress commissioned the Belmont Report (1979) in response to public outrage over the Tuskegee syphilis study conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service. The report addresses the three ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice.


Professional Ethics Codes

In addition to complying with the federal regulations governing human subjects, researchers should also follow codes of ethics and regulations within their profession and area of research:

American Anthropological Association (AAA)
http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethics.htm

American Association for Public Opinion Research
http://www.aapor.org/pdfs/AAPOR_Code_2005.pdf

American Association for State and Local History (AASLH)
http://www.aaslh.org/ethics.htm

American Historical Association (AHA)
http://www.historians.org/pubs/free/ProfessionalStandards.cfm

American Psychological Association (APA)
http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html

American Sociological Association (ASA)
http://www.asanet.org/members/ecoderev.html

Association of Social Anthropologists (ASA)
http://www.theasa.org/ethics.htm

British Sociological Association
http://www.britsoc.co.uk/new_site/index.php?area=equality&id=63

Canadian Archaeological Association (CAA)
http://www.canadianarchaeology.com/ethical.lasso

European Sociological Association
http://www.valt.helsinki.fi/esa/statutes.htm

International Sociological Association
http://www.ucm.es/info/isa/about/isa_code_of_ethics.htm

Middle East Studies Association (MESA)
http://fp.arizona.edu/mesassoc/ethics.htm

National Association for the Practice of Anthropology (NAPA)
http://www.practicinganthropology.org/about/index.cfm?print=&section=ethical_guidelines

National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp

National Council on Public History (NCPH)
http://www.ncph.org/ethics.html

Oral History Association
http://www.dickinson.edu/oha/pub_eg.html

Oral History Society
http://www.oralhistory.org.uk/ethics/ethics.html

Statement of Ethics for the American Folklore Society (AFS)
http://www.afsnet.org/aboutAFS/ethics.cfm